Starting with Ubuntu linux


  1. download image from ubuntu.com
  2. burn image to cd (using nero)
  3. boot from the cd
  4. install ubuntu
  5. download updates
  6. add essential software (see below)
  7. disable pc speaker beep sudo rmmod pcspkr
  8. enable numlock at startup: gedit /etc/gdm/Init/Default add: if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then /usr/bin/numlockx on fi
  9. set screen resolution and refresh rate
  10. customize names of special dirs: gedit ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs (renaming/moving them in nautilus should work too)
  11. uninstall open java and install sun java instead (to solve jedit display problems)

Essential software

  • file manager: Krusader (+krename +kdiff3 +rar), Gnome Commander, Midnight Commander
  • web browser: Firefox (+firebug)
  • text editor: jEdit, vim, cream, GNU Emacs, XEmacs, Eclipse
  • media player: amarok
  • p2p: LinuxDC++, KTorrent, eDonkey 2000
  • im: Pidgin (gnome), Kopete (KDE)
  • graphic editor: GIMP
  • audio editor: Audacity
  • video editor: Kino
  • drive partitioning: GParted
  • antivirus: ClamAV
  • firewall: Firestarter
  • email: Thunderbird (sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird)
  • dvd burning: K3b
  • pdf reader: KPDF, Evince, KGhostView
  • desktop: SuperKaramba (KDE only!), Beryl, Compiz
  • asio: JACK
  • daw: Ardour, Hydrogen, Rosegarden
  • games: Advanced strategy command

How to …

find a text file?
locate filename
view a text file?
more filename
edit a text file?
gedit filename
find a file containing …?
locate *.txt | grep sometext
install a package?
sudo apt-get install packagename
uninstall a package?
sudo apt-get remove packagename
define custom keyboard shortcuts?
mount a disk partition permanently?
sudo gedit /etc/fstab, add e.g. /dev/disk/by-label/IBM_PRELOAD /home/jj/sys_xp ntfs-3g locale=en_US.utf8,user,noauto,uid=1000,gid=1000,dmask=0000,fmask=0111,dir_umask=0000,file_umask=0111 0 0
set environment variables?
edit keyboard layout?
sudo gedit /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/cz
set permissions recursively + conditionally?
find /home/user/demo -perm 777 -print -exec chmod 755 {} \;
make xampp start automatically after reboot?
sudo ln -s /opt/lampp/lampp /etc/init.d/lampp sudo update-rc.d -f lampp defaults


  • bin - essential user binaries (for use by all users)
  • dev - device files
  • etc - config files (host-specific system config, environment vars...)
  • home - home dirs of individual users
  • lib - essential system libraries and kernel modules
  • root - home dir of root user
  • sbin - essential binaries used for system administration
  • tmp - world-writable dir for temporary files
  • var - variable data files like logs
  • media - mount point for removable media
  • mnt - mount point for temporarily mounted filesystem
  • opt - add-on application sw packages
  • srv - data for services provided by this system

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